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Rokkan: State formation, nation-building, and mass politics in Europe

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Rokkan. State formation, nation-building, and mass politics in Europe (pgs 244-260). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

In the model, four institutional thresholds to examine--how long did it take each state to meet each one? (1) Legitimation: "From which year or decade will historians judge that there was regular protection of the rights of assembly, expression, and publication, and within what limits?" (2) Incorporation: When did those with opposing views get to be incorporated (formally) into the process of being represented and heard (I think--unclear)? (3) Representation: "When and in what ways were the barriers [to representation of new movements] lowered to make it easier to gain seats in the legislature?" (4) Executive powers: At what point did the legislature gain actual influence over executive policy? (pg 247).