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Raustiala: States, NGOs, and international enviromental institutions

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Raustiala. 1997. States, NGOs, and international enviromental institutions. International Studies Quarterly 41 (December): 719-740.

NGOs have increasingly taken on roles previously limited only to states. Raustiala seeks to explain why NGOs are allowed to participate and/or carry out state functions. He identifies two key variables: state incentives and NGO capabilities. In his words, "States have incorporated NGOs because their participation enhances the ability, both in technocratic and political terms, of states to regulate through the treaty process. The terms of that incorporation reflect the resources, skills, and domestic influence of NGOs."